This is the most authoritative and comprehensive assessment to date of climate change impacts and vulnerabilities in the Latin American region. Key impacts are set in the context of ecosystems, every sector of the economy, and particularly the forestry sector.

Following a review of the regional climate, the chapter considers five key concerns: natural ecosystems, agriculture and plantation forestry, sea level rise, water resources, and human health. Climate change is an additional stress on biodiversity in the region's forested, mountainous, and mangrove ecosystems. Agriculture and plantation forestry are projected to suffer as crop models project decreased yields in several crops (e.g. maize, wheat, barley, grapes), even when the direct effect of carbon dioxide (CO2), fertilisation and moderate adaptation measures are considered. Human health concerns stem from heat and cold waves and changes in the distribution of vector borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue.

An executive summary provides a quick reference.