This paper reviews the implications of the agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). It focuses on the national implemention of the TRIPS agreement, technological development, plant variety protection, geographical indications, and biological diversity and the associated indigenous knowledge.

The paper argues that efforts to promote compliance with the TRIPS agreement should be accompanied by measures that address public interest challenges such as health, nutrition and environmental conservation in developing countries. It suggests that addressing these issues will require policy and institutional innovations in the developed and developing countries.

The author recommends that while some of the measures can be addressed by multilateral forums, many of them should be dealt with through domestic laws and policies that are designed to foster innnovation and expand international trade.