This Commentary describes the increasing ethical dilemmas now being faced by researchers in areas with high incidence of HIV/AIDS, as they investigate immune responses to non-HIV/AIDS diseases such as malaria. Studies of immune responses require an HIV test to check whether the research volunteer is likely to have impaired immunity, which means that clear ethical guidelines are now needed to govern whether or not such research programmes need to include provisions for voluntary counselling and testing, and other services for HIV/AIDS treatment and care.


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