As treatment for HIV/AIDS scales up worldwide in the World Health Organization’s '3 by 5' campaign, there is a danger that prevention efforts may be neglected, which in the long term will make treatment goals far more costly, as the number of new infections continues to spiral upwards. This paper, aimed at a broad readership, presents the results of mathematical modelling different scenarios, in which treatment and prevention efforts are used either alone or together, to demonstrate that scaling up both treatment and prevention together will have far greater impact on the future course of HIV/AIDS.

A subsequent piece explains further how prevention services can be made more accessible when combined with treatment, for example the availability of treatment can encourage more people to come forward for HIV testing and counselling, which in turn can help to identify vulnerable people in need of interventions, and reduce high risk behaviour and the chance of infection spreading from person to person.


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