This article from the Gambia Government / Medical Research Council Joint Ethical Committee is an early response to the criticisms in the New England Journal of Medicine and The Lancet that placebo-controlled trials to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV were unethical.

The authors express concern that important research in developing countries would be threatened if research practice were changed in response to such criticisms. In particular, research that only compared new interventions with the best available therapy in developed countries would fail to provide information about interventions that are relevant and affordable for the local situation.

The authors note that there is sometimes a need to re-examine interventions that have proved effective in developed countries before it is possible to make an informed public health decision about introducing them in the developing world. They conclude that "stopping trials in Africa that are trying to help improve the health of poor people so that those in affluent countries can have peace of mind seems a tortured form of ethical logic".

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