This is an overview of biofuels production, focusing on its use in transport. It outlines the various biofuels manufacturing pathways, and provides data on global ethanol fuel from 1990–2006 and biodiesel production in 2006.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts biofuel production will increase by 8.3 per cent annually, to meet increasing demand for road transport fuel. Therefore, the authors say it is essential to advance biofuel technologies.

Much of this brief is dedicated to the various biofuel production issues that need to be tackled, such as considering carbon emissions throughout their full lifecycle, bio-refining, and trade barriers.