Bhutan's National Adaptation Programme of Action was established to ascertain the country's particular vulnerabilities to climate change. The report gives a background on Bhutan's geography, economic situation, and climate trends, recognising its fragile mountain ecosystems, high dependency on monsoon rains for agriculture and hydropower, and the threat of glacier lake outburst floods as major climate change vulnerabilities.

The report describes the process of assessing vulnerabilities and then developing key adaptation strategies to address them. During consultations with political and community stakeholders, the best possible adaptation strategies were agreed upon and specific projects prioritised.

Strategies that will directly help vulnerable communities were chosen, including disaster management planning, the lowering of glacial lakes, watershed management, weather forecasting and flood damage prevention. A detailed profile of each project, its cost, and how it will be implemented is given.

The report recognises that without these measures, advancement in rural development, health, education and infrastructure made over the past 40 years will fast deteriorate.