Written on behalf of the US National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) to coincide with the completion of the human genome sequence, this review article attempts to provide a "blueprint" that encompasses the reality of the "genomic era". It is the outcome of almost two years of intense discussions of with hundreds of scientists and members of the public, in more than a dozen workshops and numerous individual consultations.

The vision is formulated into three major themes: genomics to biology, genomics to health, and genomics to society. It identifies a series of 'grand challenges' for each theme, which represent ambitious research targets for the scientific community, and proposes ways in which these can be moved forward.

The article focuses on the future involvement of the NHGRI in the future of genomics research, but acknowledges that extensive collaboration between scientists and funding sources - as characterised the Human Genome Project - will be essential.


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