Displaying 1-7 of 7 key documents
Source: Journal of Nanotechnology Online | Oct 2005
This follow-up paper, from the Journal of Nanotechnology Online, provides an in-depth look at the way poor countries engage with nanotechnology. It analyses why some developing nations are ahead of others in nanotechnology progress, and the challenges some less-developed countries face in shoring up nanotechnology capacity. It also investigates nanotechnology patent activity and assesses country participation in nanotechnology policy dialogues – for instance, China is a frontrunner in filing nanotech patents yet it is absent from policy discussions.
Source: Science | July 2005
Mohamed Hassan at the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) argues that the nanotechnology boom will not lead to a divide between developed and developing countries due to the transformation of 21st century global science. Hassan says Brazil, China and India are swiftly developing nanotech capabilities. Instead, he warns of a South-South divide as poorer nations struggle to catch up. To avoid this, Hassan recommends that developing nations create networks between universities and research centres to share nanotech expertise.
Source: Open AIDS Journal
This series of articles considers the questions and conflicts surrounding the use of patent pools for antiretroviral (ARV) treatments for HIV/AIDS.
It provides background to the debate, considers individual proposals including the UNITAID patent pool, and offers regional perspectives on the suitability of patent pools to Africa, China and India.
Source: PLoS Biology | October 2008
This article examines the US Bayh–Dole (BD) Act — a 1980s measure that sought to stimulate science-based economic growth by encouraging universities to patent inventions resulting from government-funded research — and assesses its suitability for developing countries.
The authors look at how and why advocates of BD-type initiatives sometimes overstate its impact in the United States and discuss the problems the act has caused for American biotechnology and information technology.
They outline the policy options for developing countries seeking to improve the contributions universities make to economic development and provide a list of safeguards that should be put in place before adopting laws styled after the act. These include no exclusive licensing, transparent patenting and government authority to issue additional licenses.
The authors conclude that policies to develop public sector research and development are context-specific and it is unclear whether any of the positive impacts of BD in the United States would arise in developing countries following similar legislation.
Source: PLoS Medicine | September 2007
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) practically define health efforts in the 21st century, but they virtually ignore non-communicable diseases such as mental health, say these authors. This is despite evidence that mental health disorders are among the most important cause of sickness and disability and even premature mortality. The authors argue that tackling mental health problems will be vital to achieving the MDGs, and three in particular — eradicating poverty, reducing child mortality, and improving maternal health.
Poverty and hunger are well-recognised risk factors for mental health, but mental health also makes it harder for people to escape the hunger trap. Mothers who are depressed during pregnancy and post natally, are more likely to have underweight babies; not only that, the illness means these mothers are more likely to stop breastfeeding and less likely to ensure their children are properly immunised than mothers without depression.
The authors advocate that strengthening basic health-care systems should be holistic. For example, developing countries need more and better-trained health workers but they should not only know how to deliver babies but also how to counsel new mothers. HIV/AIDS programmes, as another example, should ensure that individuals not only have good access to antiretrovirals but also to treatment for depression if they need it.
Source: United Nations University/Institute for New Technologies (UNU/INTECH) | 2000
This paper examines the dynamics of technological learning during the process of industrialisation. It focuses on the case of South Korea and draws policy implications for developing countries.
The paper shows that as South Korea transformed itself from an agrarian economy to a newly industrialised one, it relied initially in acquiring foreign technologies and then started duplicating these imported technologies. It then moved to more sophisticated creative imitations and only later was able to introduce original innovations. The paper concludes that developing countries have much to learn from South Korea by developing policy initiatives that integrate several elements of the Korean experience such as export promotion, human resources development programmes, and incentives for complementary technology transfer and indigenous R&D efforts.
Source: World Bank | 2003
The authors of this paper analyse how science and technology contributes to poverty alleviation and economic development and examine how these issues have been addressed in the World Bank’s work.
The paper emphasises that development is increasingly dependent on a nation's ability to understand, interpret, select, adapt, use, transmit, diffuse, produce, and commercialise scientific and technological knowledge. The paper concludes that whereas the accelerating pace of knowledge for development provides both new opportunities for and threats to socio-economic growth, most developing countries remain unprepared for these changes. This has implications for the policies of the World Bank which should, the paper suggests, pay more attention to building up science and technology capacity in developing countries in four policy areas, namely, human resources development and education, the private sector, the public sector and information technologies.