Developing countries are increasingly recognising the importance of science in developing their economies, and the challenges that entails.
Displaying 61-80 of 100 key documents
Source: Global Forum for Health Research | 2008
This report, published by the Global Forum for Health Research, tracks global investments in health research and development (R&D).
The authors review global targets and commitments for R&D in health and evaluate how well these are being met. They highlight the differences in funding by region, including analyses from Argentina, China and the United States; and provide a breakdown of investments in R&D for cancer and 20 widespread infectious diseases.
They also describe the different sources of R&D funding, providing data on private, public and not-for-profit investments.
The authors discuss the implications of the current funding climate for future health research and make recommendations for improving research agendas, suggesting that R&D investments must match the health needs of developing countries now and in the future.
Source: CID-ILRI | July 2008
This report, published by the Center for International Development at Harvard University and the International Livestock Research Institute in Kenya, asks which institutions and approaches are most effective in using scientific knowledge to inform development strategies.
The authors evaluate five agricultural projects in Africa and Asia and suggest that the best strategies for closing the gaps between knowledge and action include: 'boundary-spanning' efforts such as creating partnerships to improve dialogue between researchers and local communities; 'use-driven' research directed at solving particular problems for particular groups of people; engaging stakeholders from the outset of a project; providing incentives for risk-taking; and improving project management and communication skills.
Source: WHO/Global Forum for Health Research | 2007
This joint publication between the World Health Organization and the Global Forum for Health Research reveals mental health research capacity in 114 low-income and middle-income countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The extensive review identified over 10,000 articles, 4,633 mental health researchers and 3,829 other stakeholders. The authors argue that this is "the first systematic attempt to confirm the pressing needs of improving research capacity in mental health".
The publication provides useful details in table and charts, analysed by group of stakeholders and by region, on topics such as: researchers' profiles; priority-setting process; amount and type of research production; services and technical support available to them; courses and trainings offered; funding patterns; and dissemination of research findings. The appendix provides two extensive lists — by country — of policy and practice that resulted from research evidence, as well as research evidence that was never translated into policy and practice.
Nine recommendations indicate how the management of mental health research can be strengthened so that it meets the national needs of the countries as well as contributes to the global fund of knowledge. The authors say their report thus enables evidence-based decision-making in funding and priority setting in the area of mental health research in low-income and middle-income countries.
Source: The Oxford Health Alliance
Chronic diseases — heart and lung disease, cancer and diabetes — are having a negative economic impact on both the developed and developing world, says this report, which is why they should be properly addressed by domestic and international policy makers. Compared to the epidemiological evidence on the rise of non-communicable diseases in developing nations, there is little information on how this increase will affect their economies.
This report investigates the demographics of the problem and finds that contrary to popular belief, the disproportionate burden of disease on the elderly does have economic implications. The reason is that though the elderly may not be part of the workforce, they are still consumers and therefore a part of the economic equation.
Whether approaches to tackling chronic diseases are cost-effective or not is a vital issue for countries whose health budgets are already overstretched — the report outlines some of the interventions that offer most bang for buck. The authors point out that strategies that work well in developed countries are not so effective in developing countries, and call for more research to assess what will be appropriate.
Source: World Health Organization | October 2005
This extensive report was one of the first to document the scale of the problem of chronic diseases in developing countries, and crucially, to offer guidance on feasible and practical methods of tackling them.
The document starts by laying out in detail the profiles of chronic diseases in different countries, projections for the future, and how chronic diseases are linked with poverty. It also examines in depth the economic costs of such diseases and the macroeconomic consequences of not tackling them quickly enough. The authors outline interventions — whether community, workplace, or school — that have robust evidence supporting them.
The report ends with a call for a unifying framework of global health experts and stakeholders, in which the government has a key role. It also specifies what policymakers need to do to ensure that measures to tackle chronic diseases are put into action.
Source: Association of Commonwealth Universities | August 2007
The report summarises the results of a survey of African Universities’ experiences in collaborating with scientists and institutions in developed countries. The study was carried out by the Association of Commonwealth Universities to provide background information to support the recent development thrust aimed at strengthening African universities through greater investment and North–South (and South–South) collaboration. It focuses primarily on social sciences and humanities research. The report presents empirical data on institutional goals, resource availability, prevalence and satisfaction with collaborative arrangements, challenges faced by individual researchers, capacity building as well as training and research support.
Source: Social Sciences Research Council | 2000
This paper presents a review of the challenges of international scholarly scientific collaboration. It looks at institutional constraints and points out that the challenges and problems multiply when collaborators come from different countries with differing conditions, resource endowments and institutional structures. It is easier to call for more and better forms of international collaboration than it is to design them. The report asserts that good design is helped by a better understanding of what collaboration is and how it has been carried out. It draws on social research insights to help reduce the transactional, financial, ethical and emotional costs of international linkages and exchange and provides a conceptual framework for thinking about international collaboration issues.
Source: UK Office of Science and Innovation | 2005
Commissioned by UK Office of Science and Innovation, the report looks at the trend of international scientific collaboration between the United Kingdom and its leading partners. It uses bibliometric data (co-authorship and citations of scientific articles) to capture international scientific collaboration in seven broad research fields, focusing on Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, UK and the US. The data deals with two time-periods, 1996–2000 and 2001–2005 and the report finds that publication of co-authored articles on scientific collaboration has increased considerably faster than the overall increase in research across the two time-periods. It also finds that countries vary in their ability to collaborate or to benefit from it. The results may have important implications for putting international scientific collaborative arrangements in place.
Source: World Bank / RAND Corporation | 2001
This report attempts to understand the growing trend of international scientific collaboration as a preferred method of building scientific capacity in developing countries. Before the effects of these trends can be documented, however, there is a need to better define scientific capacity itself. This is relevant not only as an end in itself but also as a means of identifying potential collaborators. The traditional dichotomy of developed and developing countries no longer seems to serve the purpose of increasing useful understanding of these trends. The report attempts to provide a new index of scientific capacity based on an aggregation of several national-level measures and creates a useful taxonomy of countries categorised by scientific capacity. The four classifications arising from this taxonomy are scientifically advanced, proficient, developing, and lagging countries. It examines the trends in output, productivity, collaboration and linkages between and among countries in each of these categories.
Source: UNESCO | 1998
This report, prepared for the UNESCO Cairo Office, presents data and information on higher education systems in 21 Arab states over a five-year period (1992–1996). It is an update of a previous study published in 1995
Data presented includes the number of institutions, enrolment, structure and financing of higher education systems in these countries. The study also covers the growing participation of private and non-profit sectors in higher education delivery. It highlights a number of challenges faced by the higher education systems in the Arab world, including the growing role of private sector, issues in quality, demand for more diversified university programmes, and the growing importance and participation of universities in R&D systems.
Source: New Partnership for Africa's Development | July 2006
This draft report of the High-Level African Panel on Modern Biotechnology recommends that African governments prioritise biotechnology as a tool to promote development and integration. The panel advises African leaders on developments in biotechnology, capacity building needs, and measures for regional cooperation and regulatory harmonisation.
The report suggests measures to develop capacity, regulate biotechnology and improve North–South and South–South collaboration. It recommends a structure based on 'local innovation areas' where clusters of innovative companies, their suppliers and service providers, universities and research institutes are all concentrated in a small area.
This draft report is subject to ongoing consultation and is likely to undergo further development. It is an essential read for anyone tracking the evolution of high-level biotechnology policies in Africa.
Source: Pardee RAND Graduate School | 2007
This analysis of information and communication technology (ICT) policy options for developing countries uses a range of national data to categorise countries according to stages in the information revolution (numbered 1 through 4), and identify key drivers for each of these.
At lower stages of development, key drivers are seen to be those emphasising market development. Intermediate stages are dominated by demand factors while at higher stages, supply factors become more important.
This approach could help policymakers fine-tune their ICT strategies to help progress along the different stages of the information revolution. Donor agencies may also find the document useful in identifying funding opportunities to support ICT growth in the developing world.
Source: Maastricht Economic and Social Research and Training Centre on Innovation and Technology | 2003
This study uses empirical data to analyse the extent to which technological spillovers occur as a result of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Argentina. It discusses why FDI is often assumed to be fundamental to human capital formation and technological development in developing countries.
The authors argue that FDI may not be the most effective instrument to foster technological development. They observe that FDI spillovers are not extensive and that they depend on multinational corporations' assets and investment decisions as well as domestic firms' absorptive capacity, as indicated by their investment in training and equipment.
One of the study's key conclusions is that only those firms that have invested heavily in improving their absorptive capacity will receive positive spillovers from FDI.
The authors suggest that governments must make broader efforts to promote local firms and science and technology organisations, and improve the links between these.
Source: International Development Research Centre | 2005
This study examines the role of science, technology and knowledge in development programmes.
Based on qualitative data collected from 14 donor agencies around the word, the author presents a summary of donors' science and technology activities and their supporting mechanisms associated with knowledge for development, including research support, capacity building and technology transfer.
Source: IPRsonline.org | 2006
This report discusses whether the TRIPS-Plus rules on pharmaceutical patents are likely to benefit the Thai pharmaceutical industry. It focuses on the expected impact on pharmaceutical product prices, research and development efforts and technology transfer including foreign direct investment.
The author argues that Thailand has limited technological capacity and that a stringent intellectual property rights regime such as the TRIPS-Plus will only protect research results developed elsewhere. In the Thai pharmaceutical industry, it will damage domestic research and development and limit the acquisition of foreign technologies.
The report includes recommendations for developing countries wishing to strengthen their current patent protection and improve their positions in bilateral and multilateral trade negotiations.
Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development | 2005
This report brings together articles on the globalisation of research and development (R&D) and its implications for developing countries.
Among the key issues examined are:
The report reviews the growing number of multinational corporations' R&D activities in select developing countries and their driving forces. It discusses the importance of national policies in acquiring and originating countries as well as international ones.
The report is presented in four parts. The first discusses R&D's globalisation. The second introduces case studies from developing and transition countries. The third presents policy issues. And the last part is a collection of opinion articles.
A key conclusion of this report is that policy interventions can be fundamental to fostering and attracting R&D-based FDI to developing countries.
Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development | 2005
This World Investment Report examines the latest trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) and looks at how research and development (R&D) has become an international activity thanks to multinational corporations.
The report indicates that FDI flows grew in 2004, driven mainly by FDI to developing countries. It says that multinational companies' R&D in developing countries has become more complex, often going beyond local market adaptation to include activities that target global markets.
The report emphasises that countries receiving inflows of FDI must have coherent policies to promote beneficial R&D interactions between multinational corporations and domestic organisations.
Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development | 2006
This World Investment Report describes global trends in foreign direct investment (FDI), showing that the growth seen worldwide is largely due to cross-border mergers and acquisitions.
The report highlights the rise of FDI from developing and transition countries, examining the drivers and determinants of this phenomenon, the impact on originating and acquiring countries, and policy implications.
It argues that this rise is largely driven by multinational corporations from these countries that are becoming major players in the world economy.
Source: Globelics | 2005
This paper maps African countries' knowledge base through patent applications and publications. It shows South Africa as academically, and technically, the strongest country of the continent. The number of publications is growing in other African countries, but patenting remains limited all-round.
The paper ends on a positive note, arguing that African countries already possess the basis for knowledge-driven development.
Source: Nigerian National Health Research Ethics Committee | 2006
This draft document contains general guidelines on the creation and governance of health research ethics committees (HRECs) in Nigeria.
It also lists the principal characteristics research projects need to demonstrate in order to gain HREC approval. Research in Nigeria must have social or scientific value, be scientifically valid, ensure fair selection of participants, minimise health risks and undergo independent review. In addition, all participants of research projects must give their informed consent and be respected at all times. All projects must adhere to good clinical and laboratory practices. Researchers must do all they can to ensure their work has a lasting impact — transferring technology where appropriate and contributing to capacity building efforts.