Developing countries are increasingly recognising the importance of science in developing their economies, and the challenges that entails.
Displaying 1-19 of 19 key documents
Source: Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe | 2009
This publication discusses the importance of considering gender differences in the design, implementation and life-cycle of early warning systems, as part of a series of briefs aimed at practitioners. It introduces the terminology and concepts behind gender and early warning systems, illustrates how women are excluded from key elements of these systems, and briefly outlines steps towards integrating gender issues.
The publication acknowledges that although women are one of the major vulnerable groups affected by disasters, they are unrepresented in the coordination of early warning systems, while gender is still often ignored in efforts aimed at disaster preparedness. It also acknowledges that women do not just represent vulnerability, but provide opportunities for enhancing early warning systems through social ties and local knowledge.
Source: Maria Socorro I. Diokno
This chapter of the Human Rights Based Approach (HRBA) Development Toolkit — a document that aims to help address the role of human rights in development — looks at the full spectrum of the rights invoked by HRBA in relation to development, and fleshes out their concrete implications on the work that development planners undertake.
It also examines how human rights-based approaches to development planning operate in regional and national settings, and maps the multiple factors that affect the implementation of HRBA in development.
It includes diagrams that illustrate the pathway of each particular human right within the developmental infrastructure, with a view to revealing the deep social impacts found at each step of the pathway. The chapter illustrates how rights are not simply abstract principles, but normative mechanisms with profound effects on the way that development is practised on the ground.
Source: The International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) | June 2012
This report presents a new index, which could become an alternative to gross domestic product (GDP) and the Human Development Index as a means of assessing a country's economic development. The Inclusive Wealth Index (IWI) measures nations' wealth by taking into account natural resources and ecological conditions, and a long-term view on wellbeing and sustainability.
The IWI was applied to 20 countries — representing over half the world's population and three quarters of global GDP — revealing changes in inclusive wealth between 1990 and 2008. The report found that an accurate representation of development depends on accounting for factors such as population change, the effect of global variables, and the price of natural or social capital. It recommends that governments integrate the IWI into planning, development and economic policies; protect their natural capital; and establish research initiatives to help evaluate natural capital components.
The report will be published every two years, offering policymakers practical frameworks and encouraging more holistic approaches to economic development assessments.
Source: World Bank | November 2011
The purpose of this toolkit is to offer guidance to groups or development practitioners who collaborate closely with communities, on researching and implementing climate adaptation coalitions. It says that using the Adaptation Coalition Framework can build capacity for the informed participation of local communities in decision-making. This is critical because climate change impacts are likely to be variable, longer-term and difficult to predict, yet have unique local effects because of the socioeconomic and environmental conditions of every community.
The toolkit outlines a series of steps towards building coalitions, starting with exchange of knowledge and moving on to information gathering, feedback and planning, and finally coalition strengthening. It provides information on how to train local community adaptation teams to continue the work over the long-term, and how to report back findings to a community. The report identifies the resources and time commitments needed, and elements likely to make coalitions successful, such as having a collective goal.
Source: The World Bank | May 2011
This sourcebook provides an overview of current and upcoming information and communications technology (ICT) for agricultural innovation, and discusses their potential to improve productivity, services institutions and value chains. It aims to provide both technical and policy guidance to development professionals and decision makers, and focuses on how ICT can support poor smallholder farmers including female farmers.
The guide includes fourteen modules on various aspects of ICTs in agriculture, including how to use the technologies to boost livestock, crop and fishery production; increase smallholder farmers' access to financial services; and improve rural governance. Each module provides information about current trends in ICT use, identifies challenges and lessons learned, notes how technologies have been used to achieve specific goals, and offers examples of successes or failures. The report describes the contributions these technologies can make, provides guidance on how to design and implement ICTs and on how to evaluate them.
Source: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development
This policy brief looks at the role of intellectual property rights in developing and accessing technologies for mitigation and adaption to climate change. It provides an overview of intellectual property rights as the main mechanism of encouraging technological innovation for responding to climate change, and describes the issues that prevent constructive discussion in the area. The brief brings together diverse perspectives to propose action, beginning with building trust and exploring potential policy options, challenging countries to go beyond their entrenched positions and thus enable productive climate talks. It concludes with a caution that without reaching a compromise, the impasse will prevent a significant move towards green technologies.
Source: Center for Global Development | September 2011
This report presents findings from the first randomised evaluation of a cash transfer programme delivered using mobile phones. The study investigated the effect of mobile phone technology on monthly cash transfers to households in Niger that were affected by a severe drought.
Villages that received cash in this way, known as 'zap', saw benefits such as reduced costs of receiving cash, more diverse purchases and diets, and more types of crops. This, suggest the authors, is down to the zap mechanism encouraging different decision-making in the household, as well as due to lower costs and greater privacy.
They conclude that mobile transfers are a cost-effective way of transferring cash to remote rural populations, especially those with limited road and financial infrastructure, but caution that more research is needed on broader effects on the welfare of these populations.
Source: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
This safety guide, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is designed to help countries prepare plans to improve their capacity to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies whether as a result of an accident or malicious use of nuclear material. The guide can also be used to meet IAEA's safety requirements.
It outlines generic and operational criteria, according to specific radiation doses, to help policymakers decide between different courses of action to protect the public, emergency workers and the environment. It includes guidelines for assessing food and water contamination, and subsequent remediation measures, as well as on how to set safety perimeters around an incident depending on initial observations at the scene. The guide also outlines lessons learned from past experiences.
Source: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
This guide, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, offers practical advice for policymakers, managers and advisers in countries that are setting up their first nuclear power plant, or those restarting an inactive nuclear programme. It provides information about the activities, responsibilities and desired attributes of those running nuclear plants, whether private companies or the state. It also describes the experience of countries that have built and operated nuclear power plants, and outlines how the owner and operator should interact with national authorities, nuclear and environmental regulatory bodies, the national grid, waste management, and emergency planning and response organisations. The report also provides examples of contracts that can be used in the process of setting up a power plant.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) | March 2011
This policy guide, published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, lays out the key requirements for developing effective and efficient smallholder seed enterprises, and how the process can be supported through policy. It argues that the best way to ensure production and distribution of quality seed in developing countries may be to support smallholder seed enterprises, but this approach can only succeed if the right policies and capacities are in place.
The report gives an overview of each stage of the evolution of the seed sector and possible interventions, as well as priority activities for policy support at each stage. These may include national policies to encourage linkages between research, quality control and financial systems that can support local smallholders in taking over seed production from the public sector. It outlines specific requirements for the establishment and sustainable operation of smallholder seed enterprises.
Source: ASSAf | 2011
This booklet, published by the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf), aims to inform policymakers about how Inquiry-Based Science Education (IBSE) — an educational tool that uses learners' experiences for practical teaching — can encourage girls to participate in science and mathematics. It addresses current misconceptions about girls' aptitude for science, and ineffective teaching methods at primary schools in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The report provides an overview of girls' education in Sub-Saharan Africa and describes IBSE, its features, and where it has been implemented. It suggests that integrating IBSE into the school curricula can help to increase girls' participation in science and mathematics. The Academy urges policymakers to endorse IBSE and offers guidance on how they can support pilot projects to implement it in primary schools.
Source: UNESCO | 2007
This training manual aims to help science educators, career advisers and school staff to encourage more girls to pursue science and technology (S&T) careers in Africa. Specific objectives include promoting a positive image of women in science, making educators aware of gender stereotypes related to science careers, improving girls' access to science education and ensuring that teachers have the tools they need.
The manual is divided into six main units, each targeting a different audience. For each unit, the manual describes the purpose, target groups, learning outcomes and course content, together with suggested workshop activities for each topic. The workshops enable educators to explore gender issues around science and technology in depth. This manual is available in English, French and Portuguese.
Source: UNESCO Office Jakarta and Regional Bureau for Science in Asia and the Pacific (2003) | July 2003
This training manual focuses on helping scientists, policymakers, government bodies and human resource departments improve their leadership capabilities in science, technology and gender (STG) issues. By building the capacity of government organisations to implement policies on gender equality, it aims to empower women, especially those who are marginalised.
The manual contains four modules that describe gender equality studies and training, address why and how this should be introduced, and outline key issues set to become more relevant in the future, such as globalisation and intellectual property. Each module includes a summary of key aims, activities and case studies from Asia-Pacific countries. The manual offers tips and guidelines in conducting training sessions, and encourages the modification of workshops to suit users' needs.
Source: infoDev | October 2010
This report aims to give practical recommendations on the design of Climate Innovation Centres (CICs), which seek to tackle barriers to the transfer, development and deployment of climate technologies in developing countries. It was commissioned by infoDev in collaboration with the UK Department for International Development and the UN Industrial Development Organization.
The report argues that developing countries lag in their capacity to transfer, develop and deploy innovative climate technologies — making them passive recipients of technologies developed elsewhere that are not suited to local conditions.
It highlights gaps and barriers to climate technology innovation based on a survey of 62 developing countries, and after screening more than 550 organisations to identify 67 as potential CICs. To be successful, it says, CICs will need to perform several functions such as committing their own capital to climate technology innovations or finding new ways to attract investors; coordinating research and development; and performing technology needs assessments.
Source: IFPRI | April 2011
This technical guide describes the Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (SAKSS), a mechanism developed to address gaps in the capacity of many African countries to translate scientific evidence into agricultural and development policies. The SAKSS concept brings together "strategic analysis", an integrated framework used to identify strategies for attaining development goals, and "knowledge support systems", a network that supplies the evidence needed to formulate and implement these strategies.
The guide is aimed at policy analysts and researchers helping to set up SAKSSs in Sub-Saharan African countries, as well as governments and development partners looking for this type of knowledge support system. The first part gives an overview of SAKSS, including its objectives and underlying principles. The second part gives practical guidance on setting up a country SAKSS, followed by examples of existing applications and a list of resources.
Source: UNFCCC and UNDP | June 2009
This handbook offers developing countries guidance on how to conduct technology needs assessments systematically to address climate change.
It was prepared by the UN Development Programme (UNDP), in collaboration with the Expert Group on Technology Transfer of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat and the Climate Technology Initiative.
This updated version of the 2004 handbook provides a more detailed framework for the development and implementation of needs assessments designed to help countries make informed choices on the technologies they can adopt to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change. In particular, it advises on how to identify, assess and prioritise technologies. It also examines ways to support capacity building and help establish environments to enable technology transfer.
Source: Council on Health Research for Development | May 2010
This report, endorsed by the African Ministerial Conference on Science and Technology, analyses the obstacles to providing better access to, and ensuring local production of, medicines in low- and middle-income African countries.
It presents a map of innovation and access activities across the continent and offers a planning tool — the Pharmaceutical Innovation Framework and Grid — to help countries do self-assessments, develop strategies, build capacity and partnerships and improve access to essential medicines.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) | 2009
This set of documents, written and published by the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) Right to Food Unit, is intended as a practical guide to implementing the human right to adequate food.
This six-part guide includes background information on legislating for the right to food, as well as detailed outlines of methods to monitor the human right to adequate food.
It also includes a guide to conducting a right to food assessment, and establishing a budget for the right to food.
A common theme throughout the documents is the need to raise public awareness about these issues.
The toolbox offers policymakers background and contextual information they may not have — such as different legal options for governing the right to food — and provides practical advice on increasing access to food.
Source: Cooperation South Journal, UNCSTD | 2000
A special thematic edition of Cooperation South Journal that presents a collection of short articles written at the turn of the millennium on a variety of topics of relevance to South–South science and technology cooperation, including definitional issues, objectives, challenges, knowledge sharing and technology transfer. The articles represent a comprehensive attempt by leading administrators, thinkers and scholars to address the variety of challenges and issues confronting this growing type of scientific activity.