Source: 科学与发展网络 (SciDev.Net)
22 September 2008 | EN | 中文
A taro plantation. Crops will be screened for adaptable traits to climate change.
An international foundation is funding a drive to screen thousands of crops for traits that will be useful in adapting food production to climate change.
The Global Crop Diversity Trust is providing around US$300,000 of funding this year for researchers in 21 agricultural institutions in 15 countries across the developing world. Around US$200,000 will be spent next year with a continued commitment in the long term.
Crops from banana to sweet potato will be screened to identify material that plant breeders can use to produce varieties adapted to conditions associated with climate change.
Crop diversity is the biological foundation of agriculture, says Cary Fowler, executive director of the trust.
"Without it agriculture cannot adapt to anything: pests, disease, climate change, drought, energy constraints … nothing. With crop diversity we can have an agricultural system that — if we're smart — is sustainable and productive, can feed people and fuel development."
Researchers will screen the crops by growing them in different stress conditions — such as high salinity or high temperature — and assessing how well they grow.
Varieties with positive traits will be put into an open access database, says Fowler.
Some will also be entered into a 'pre-breeding' programme. Integrating one or two genes from an old or wild variety into a modern variety is costly and difficult, says Fowler, and pre-breeding produces early-stage, new varieties with the desired traits, so that plant breeders can get a 'head start' on producing varieties for farmers' fields.
"Plant breeders often have to make quick progress so they're loathe to get involved in the kind of cutting edge research to put exotic traits in [a crop]. So the pre-breeding at least gets that first set of genes into some kind of form that is easier for a plant breeder."
Funded projects include a scheme in Papua New Guinea to screen over 20 varieties of the root crop taro for drought and salinity resistance. Taro is particularly important to the poor island communities of the Pacific region, as it need not be harvested for a number of years, making for a sustainable source of food and an 'insurance policy' at times when the prices of other staple crops become too high.
A programme in Bangladesh will screen varieties of the grass pea, a hardy crop that is often the only crop left in times of environmental stress and grown by the poorest communities.
Long-term consumption of grass pea can lead to paralysis, as the plant produces a neurotoxin — giving people a choice between starvation or paralysis. Researchers will search for varieties with low levels of this neurotoxin.
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