Displaying 1-19 of 19 key documents
Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) | June 2012
This report examines how refugees and displaced people from several countries in the East and Horn of Africa have perceived, experienced and responded to climatic variability and the negative impacts of climate change. Through interviews and focus groups, and supported by a literature review, the report assesses how people manage the impact of climate change and environmental stress, how these factors affect livelihoods and vulnerability, and to what extent they influence people's decisions to move from their homes.
Key findings include that climate change had negatively impacted farming and livestock husbandry, and triggered conflict by further exacerbating existing resource scarcity. However, people tended to employ a wide range of adaptive strategies, only moving home as a last resort. The report also states that migration was often viewed as temporary, and very rarely occurred across national borders. It concludes that political conditions, civil disorder and state oppression inhibited people's coping strategies.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
This online book, published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, explores Africa's potential for intensifying agricultural production through ecological agriculture — the integration of traditional, conservation oriented farming techniques with modern science and technology.
Building on discussions from the Conference on Ecological Agriculture, held in Ethiopia in 2008, it outlines past experiences such as lessons learned from the Green Revolution in Asia; trends in African agricultural knowledge, science and technology for development; and climate change implications for agriculture.
The book concludes that ecological agriculture can benefit smallholder farmers in several ways such as helping to increase Africa's productivity, and therefore improving food security, and helping farmers adapt to climate change by making agro-ecosystems more resilient to stress. But scaling up ecological agriculture will require policy support as well as additional resources and information.
This paper reports the results of a systematic review of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia. The study, funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), assessed eight food crops — rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, millet, cassava, yam, plantain and sugarcane — that make up more than 80 per cent of agricultural production in these regions. Its findings aim to inform DFID's policies, allocation of resources and other practices according to the need for a stronger focus on evidence-informed decision-making on agriculture in a changing climate. The report provides background information; a detailed account of the review protocol and methodology; the data extraction strategy; data collection; meta-analyses; a synthesis of results; and key findings for all crops organised by region. It recognises that climate change will worsen environmental conditions that already affect crops, such as heat, drought, salinity and submergence in water.
Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
This report from the IPCC, provides a complete and comprehensive overview of the current knowledge and understanding of climate change. The report includes four separate documents that cover the physical science basis for climate change, projected impacts, adaptation and vulnerability of different populations, mitigation strategies, and a synthesis report for policymakers.
Source: German Development Centre
This study explores strategies for effectively adapting small-scale agriculture to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors provide background information on the region's agriculture and climate, an overview of adaptation analysis tools and policy frameworks. They suggest a mix of farm practices for successful and resilient adaptation.
This report discusses opportunities for developing countries to pursue low carbon growth within four key areas: energy efficiency, agriculture, and renewable energy technologies. It presents 20 essays — written by a wide range of economic, financial, climate and food crises experts — that focus on the prospects and hurdles facing least developed countries.
Source: LEAD Africa
This report, published in English and French, looks at the unique responsibilities of African regional institutions in leading the continent on climate issues.
The report makes six recommendations for action by regional institutions: provide technical advice to African climate negotiators; help develop a coherent continental framework for action against climate change; play a 'bridging' role between pan-African organisations and national ones; improve the availability of climate data on the continent by sharing information; and compare strategies for adaptation to inform policymaking.
Source: International Institute of Economic Development (IIED) | November 2009
This special issue of the journal Participatory Learning and Action highlights community-based approaches to climate change adaptation. It showcases methods to make scientific data accessible to communities, integrate scientific and indigenous knowledge, and plan adaptation measures. It highlights the challenges ahead, including ensuring effective participation and building the capacity of local organisations and governments.
Source: Africa Progress Panel
This policy brief, prepared by the Africa Progress Panel, African Development Bank and UN, outlines the implications of climate change for Africa, emphasising the need for a strong and cohesive negotiating position at the December 2009 climate talks in Copenhagen.
The authors argue that African governments must define practical steps for the international community to address the climate crisis. Three areas require urgent action: clear emissions targets and an adaptation fund; energy-saving technologies through additional financing and technology transfer; and improving long-term frameworks such as the Clean Development Mechanism and reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).
To achieve this, argue the authors, African heads of state and ministers of finance, planning and environment must collaborate on a practical strategy position to generate maximum buy-in from the rest of the world. This must be achieved in time for high-level meetings in the second half of 2009.
Source: Bulletin of the WHO | 2000
As global temperatures rise, vector-borne disease is set to increase in the developing world but patterns will vary across countries. This review looks at how the prevalence of vector-borne disease will change in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America.
As the authors explain, urbanisation levels will determine which diseases are likely to hit hardest. For example, dengue fever is a largely urban disease and will affect South America, where over 70 per cent of the population live in cities, far more than it will Sub-Saharan Africa, where less than 30 per cent of people live in urban areas. Malaria, by contrast, will have a bigger impact in Africa.
As ecosystems change, so will the distribution of vector species. Some will find their habitats expanded. A positive note is that most vectors cannot survive above about 40 degrees Celsius, so regions in which warming tips the temperature over this level could well see a drop in vector-borne disease — this is starting to be seen in Senegal, for example.
But the precise extent to which climate variability affects vector-borne disease is yet unknown, say the authors, which hampers evidence-based policy change.
Source: Tebtebba | September 2008
This guide, published by Tebtebba (Indigenous Peoples' International Centre for Policy Research and Education), outlines the expected impacts of climate change on indigenous peoples around the world, and showcases traditional methods of climate change mitigation and adaption.
Following a basic introduction to climate change and the bodies, mechanisms and processes used for addressing it, the authors outline how climate change is impacting indigenous peoples in diverse ecosystems. For example, food and water insecurity arising from increased flooding or drought, and loss of biodiversity and traditional knowledge from rising temperatures.
The authors discuss the likely impacts of climate change mitigation measures highlighting, for example, the limitations of market-based strategies such as the Clean Development Mechanism. They discuss a range of alternative adaptation measures already being practiced by indigenous people, providing several case studies and examples of innovative strategies used in different regions. For example, African farmers using zero-tillage practices to moderate soil temperatures, Asian farmers growing varieties of crops to minimise the risk of harvest failure, and Honduran farmers using agroforestry and terracing to reduce erosion.
The authors go on to discuss measures for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) and emphasise the need for indigenous people to be fully engaged in the debate.
Source: IFPRI | 2008
This discussion paper, published by the International Food Policy Research Centre, examines the potential for mitigating climate change through carbon trading, with particular emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa.
The authors provide an overview of global carbon markets, highlighting Africa's share in these, while outlining the obstacles African nations face in participating. They also assess mitigation opportunities in agriculture, land use and forestry in the region.
They conclude that Sub-Saharan Africa has much potential for mitigating emissions through forestry and cropland management, but action is constrained by existing capacity, funds, property rights and the price of CO2 equivalents. They also suggest that integrating the region into global carbon markets will require new international capacity-building and advisory services, simpler rules for participating in the Clean Development Mechanism, access to emission allowances and credits, and more involvement in voluntary markets.
Source: ILRI/ACTS | August 2006
This book-length report details a study by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) that aimed to map vulnerability to the impacts of climate change in Africa.
Climate change models of four different future scenarios were used and the impacts on agriculture assessed. Biophysical and social vulnerability were also analysed, using indicators developed specifically for this research.
The outcomes suggest, if tentatively, that many already vulnerable systems may be adversely affected by climate impacts, including the mixed arid-semiarid systems in the Sahel and rangelands in eastern Africa, the Great Lakes region, the coastal regions of eastern Africa and the drier zones of southern Africa.
The report concludes that adaptation is best researched at national or regional levels, not the macro level, due to local variability, and that communities themselves need to become much more involved in adaptation strategies.
Source: IUCN | 2004
This report published by the IUCN (The World Conservation Union) is based on participatory consultations with stakeholders and provides a comprehensive and in-depth account of West Africa's vulnerability to climate impacts on water resources, wetlands and desertification.
The report contains two parts; the first section details the regional context, climate impacts on water resources and West Africa's preparedness at present. This is followed by an outline of a potential regional adaptation strategy, its methods and its implementation.
This report offers recommendations on how African water resources specifically may be affected by climate change, but also ways collaboration for adaptation can be strategic and useful.
Source: IPCC | 1998
This chapter of the IPCC special report on climate change's regional impacts is one of the most authoritative sources on the issue, despite a considerable amount of work having been published since.
The chapter covers the regional climate, key vulnerabilities for various sectors, such as terrestrial ecosystems, water resources, agriculture and fisheries, coastal zones, human settlements and health. A synthesis outlines the potential impacts on the continent and lays out the key challenges that should guide further research.
This chapter should be read together with chapter 10 of the IPCC's 'Climate Change 2001' report. They cover similar ground, but various developments in research distinguish the two. The document is also available in French (PDF).
Source: UNFCCC | September 2006
In recent years, case studies of countries' experiences of adapting to the impacts of climate change have begun to emerge. This paper is a summary of a presentation given at the 2006 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change African Workshop on Adaptation and outlines adaptation planning experiences from Tanzania.
After background information and a summary of environmental stresses and the regulatory context in Tanzania, the paper outlines in detail the types of adaptation strategies the country is implementing.
The paper highlights that many adjustments are necessary at an international, national and local level. Adaptation to climate change, the authors demonstrate, can mean anything from fortifying early warning systems and regulating water rights to using local seed varieties for their drought-resistant characteristics.
The brief provides an accessible and hands-on summary of adaptation activities in Tanzania and should be useful to practitioners in developing and developed countries alike.
Source: The IPCC | 2001
This chapter of the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is the authoritative source on climate change impacts and vulnerabilities in Africa. It summarises much of the peer-reviewed literature that explains how Africa will fare in a changing climate.
Background information on why Africa is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change is provided. The major issues of regional concern including unreliable water resources, food security, natural resource management and loss of biodiversity, human health, the built environment and infrastructure and desertification and how these will be compounded by projected climate change are discussed.
The chapter highlights the uncertainty of predicting climate change impacts in Africa and emphasises the existing diversity of African climates.
The provided synthesis of years of peer-reviewed research is essential reading for anyone interested in climate change in Africa. The text is also available as an html document.
Source: Rockefeller Foundation | July 2006
This paper provides a call for a new Green Revolution focused on Africa. It summarises the successes and failures of the original Green Revolution, setting out the challenge of igniting a new one that can succeed in Africa.
The authors identify the need for more robust seed varieties, more trained scientists, improved inputs and cultivation practices, better supply and marketing infrastructure, and greater access to irrigation. Achieving these, say the authors, will require strong partnerships between philanthropists, governments, donors, research institutes and the private sector, as well as decisive leadership.
Source: UNFCCC Secretariat | 1992
This is the full text of the Framework Convention, which was adopted at the United Nations Headquarters, New York on 9 May 1992. The convention was open for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 4 to 14 June 1992, and thereafter at the UN Headquarters in New York, from 20 June 1992 to 19 June 1993. By that date the Convention had received 166 signatures. The Convention entered into force on 21 March 1994.