Displaying 1-17 of 17 key documents
This report presents the results of a study of six African agricultural carbon projects and identifies institutional innovations — such as financial management and carbon monitoring systems — that have helped make them successful. It also puts forward emerging research questions and discusses the future of the project.
The study found that direct carbon payments to farmers were low, but non-cash benefits were received after careful management. The projects successfully established systems for financial management, agricultural extension, and carbon monitoring, using a complex set of partnerships. They also found that mechanisms for settling conflict over land and benefits were crucial, as were methods for managing power dynamics to ensure equitable decision-making and participation.
Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization | June 2012
This report argues that more sustainable use of forestry resources can help reduce poverty and hunger, mitigate the impacts of climate change, and create more sustainable sources of bio-products and bio-energy. It was released at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), where many of these challenges were discussed.
The report highlights that 350 million of the world's poorest people depend on forests for survival, and that investing in wood-based enterprises creates jobs and improves livelihoods. It argues that when sourced sustainably, wood products can store carbon and be easily recycled, and highlights that sustainable forestry offers a renewable, alternative source of energy. It says that more resources need to be invested in creating small and medium forest-based enterprises that benefit local communities.
The report concludes that promoting a sustainable forest-based industry can both improve local economies and meet sustainability goals. But this will require policies, programmes and incentives.
Source: Forest and Climate Change Programme of FAO | May 2012
This report presents the results of the survey of forest stakeholders, soliciting their views, opinions and observations on issues that influence the ability of forest managers to respond to climate change. It is aimed at forest managers, policymakers, researchers, communications specialists and those interested in forests and climate change.
The survey was conducted to develop guidelines to help forest managers respond effectively to climate change challenges through actions consistent with sustainable forest management. Survey questions covered a range of areas including climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation measures, laws and regulations, and relevance of existing guidelines. The respondents indicated how much support they receive, and how much they need, in order to implement adaptation and mitigation measures. A complete set of the results are available on the FAO Forests and Climate Change Programme website.
Source: Centre for Global Development | May 2012
This report introduces FCPR (Forest Conservation Performance Rating), a system of colour-coded ratings for tropical forest conservation performance. The ratings reward tropical forest conservation by giving a green rating to countries, states and provinces that are on track to zero tropical forest clearing in 2025; yellow when progress is better than expected but insufficient to achieve the 2025 target; and red when performance is worse than expected.
The report describes how the system was used to rate the quarterly conservation performance of 27 countries, which were responsible for 94 percent of tropical forest clearing during 2000–2005, as well as 242 of their states and provinces that contain tropical forests.
Results include a 'green' rating for Latin America, largely accounted for by Brazil; a yellow rating for the Asia-Pacific region, because 'green' Indonesia is counterbalanced by 'red' Malaysia, Cambodia and Papua New Guinea, and 'yellow' Myanmar; and a 'red' rating for Africa.
Source: Forest Peoples Programme | 2012
This report provides estimated figures for indigenous and forest peoples' populations across the world.
It seeks to raise awareness and recognition of indigenous and forest peoples, and their role in the management and use of forests and its resources. The report includes estimated figures according to type of forest dependence, region and country. It aims to serve as a useful reference in advocacy for the recognition of forest peoples' legal and human rights.
The figures were collected from a range of sources, including publications from UN bodies, national governments, nongovernmental organisations, human rights, and environmental institutions and academia. The report highlights the lack of accurate and up-to-date data on indigenous and forest peoples and argues the critical need for further research to improve estimates.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) | March 2012
This report gives an overview of climate change impacts on forests as part of a process to prepare management guidelines, based on a review of the literature and a survey of forest managers. It reviews how changes such as temperature alterations and availability of water might impact growth changes, wildfires, pests and diseases. The authors identify what is needed to create an environment that would support forest managers' efforts in mitigation and adaptation.
The document concludes that, although some forest managers are already taking measures to combat climate change, there is a lack of proper monitoring to assess their effectiveness, efficiency and impacts. It highlights that these measures are designed in response to perceived risks rather than incentive schemes such as certification. And it provides a number of recommendations for forest managers to better prepare for climate change.
Source: World Bank | March 2012
The report aims to inform developers of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects and policymakers about lessons learned by the BioCarbon Fund, a public-private initiative supporting more than 20 afforestation and reforestation projects in 16 countries since 2004.
It outlines the opportunities that CDM projects present for the forestry sector, as well as the challenges that project developers face in complying with regulatory requirements. The report concludes with recommendations on how current regulations could be improved so that they match the realities on the ground, as well as other aspects of managing CDM projects — such as new ways of accessing finance and strengthening capacity at the local level.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization | November 2011
This report provides guidance on improving forest health practices by explaining the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs), and assisting policymakers, planners and managers — particularly in developing countries — to apply these standards. This advice aims to help prevent the spread of insects, pathogens and other non-indigenous pests as a result of growing global trade and the exploitation of new market opportunities.
The guide includes information on how the ISPMs and regulations put in place by national plant protection organisations (NPPO) affect the import and export of forest commodities; how management approaches can help people reduce the risks of spreading pests in the forest; and how ISPMs can be used to prevent the spread of forest pests. It suggests that forest sector personnel and NPPOs need to work more closely to develop and implement ISPMs, and help preserve forest health.
Source: World Agroforestry Centre | April 2011
This report synthesises the results of a review of 104 studies on gender and the adoption of agroforestry in Africa, and aims to identify strategies that challenge gender imbalances in development initiatives. It explores women's participation in agroforestry, including their ability to manage agroforestry practices, access to agroforestry information, and how they benefit from agroforestry.
The results highlight the substantial benefits that agroforestry can offer to rural women in Africa, mainly because it requires fewer resources than alternative enterprises. But women's participation is low, with limited access to information and markets, and a mixed record of successful management of agroforestry technologies.
The report provides several technological, policy and institutional recommendations for improving the efficiency of women's participation in agroforestry. They include domesticating important tree species, and ensuring that women have access to market information and microfinance. The report concludes by suggesting further research in areas such as measuring the income that women generate from agroforestry, and identifying the key ingredients of success stories across Africa.
Source: Union of Concerned Scientists
This report examines economic factors that drive deforestation and forest degradation: soybeans, beef cattle, palm oil, timber and pulp, wood for fuel and small farmers. It investigates the impact of population growth and changing diets, both of which fuel the demand for tropical commodities that causes deforestation.
The report finds that the drivers of deforestation vary significantly between continents: cattle and soy play an important role only in Latin America, for example, while palm oil plantations are found almost exclusively in Indonesia and Malaysia.
It describes examples of successful management of deforestation and other factors behind forest degradation, and concludes by suggesting agricultural and forest management policies that can help promote development without increasing deforestation.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization | May 2011
This report presents the Framework for Assessing and Monitoring Forest Governance — an analytical framework that can help governments and other stakeholders describe, diagnose, monitor, assess and report on the state of a county's forest governance. It builds on the results of an expert workshop organised by the UN Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD) and the UK's Chatham House.
The framework aims to promote informed discussions about forest governance, drawing on approaches currently used or being developed. The report includes information about the framework's design, including a description of its components and a guide on how it should be used.
Source: The United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) | December 2009
This report reviews four types of measures used in activities to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) to promote environmental benefits beyond mitigating climate change. These measures are: non-binding recommendations, support, minimum standards and incentives.
The authors conclude that national policies on REDD are key to determining the extent to which co-benefits are promoted.
Source: UN Environment Programme and Convention on Biodiversity
This report examines the relationship between biodiversity, forest resilience and ecosystem stability in the face of climate change. The authors review ecosystem resilience and stability theories, and conclude that forests' capacity to withstand disturbance depends on biodiversity at multiple scales.
Source: Tebtebba | September 2008
This guide, published by Tebtebba (Indigenous Peoples' International Centre for Policy Research and Education), outlines the expected impacts of climate change on indigenous peoples around the world, and showcases traditional methods of climate change mitigation and adaption.
Following a basic introduction to climate change and the bodies, mechanisms and processes used for addressing it, the authors outline how climate change is impacting indigenous peoples in diverse ecosystems. For example, food and water insecurity arising from increased flooding or drought, and loss of biodiversity and traditional knowledge from rising temperatures.
The authors discuss the likely impacts of climate change mitigation measures highlighting, for example, the limitations of market-based strategies such as the Clean Development Mechanism. They discuss a range of alternative adaptation measures already being practiced by indigenous people, providing several case studies and examples of innovative strategies used in different regions. For example, African farmers using zero-tillage practices to moderate soil temperatures, Asian farmers growing varieties of crops to minimise the risk of harvest failure, and Honduran farmers using agroforestry and terracing to reduce erosion.
The authors go on to discuss measures for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) and emphasise the need for indigenous people to be fully engaged in the debate.
Source: Meridian Institute | March 2009
This comprehensive report on the options for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) under consideration for an international deal on climate change was prepared by the Meridian Institute for the Government of Norway.
The authors focus on four critical areas for successfully developing REDD measures: finance, reference levels, monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) and promoting indigenous peoples' effective participation. They propose a three-phased approach for REDD projects, to account for countries' widely varying capacities. This would start with countries receiving funds to develop national REDD strategies, followed by support to implement those strategies, which finally leads to payment for verified performance compared to agreed reference levels.
The report concludes that successful REDD implementation requires global partnership, led by REDD countries, in which indigenous peoples and local communities are fully engaged.
Source: FAO | 2009
This series of reports, published biennially by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, examines the current status of global forest resources and the role of forests in sustainable development. Each report includes one or more regional perspectives on forest resources and focuses on topical issues ranging from the potential economic benefits of forests to forest-based poverty alleviation to the links between forests and climate change.
The 2009 edition considers how forestry will have to adapt over the next 20 years to cope with variations in demand for wood products, environmental services, changes in forest sector institutions and developments in science and technology. It highlights the need to address imbalances in scientific and technological capacity by reducing barriers to international and inter-sectoral technology transfer, and mainstreaming environmental issues.
Source: UN Convention to Combat Desertification | September 2005
This 25-page report summarises the economic opportunities for the 2 billion people who live in drylands. In addition to agriculture, forestry, and livestock-rearing, the report highlights solar energy development, aquaculture, tourism, afforestation, bioprospecting, and mining as areas in which people and governments can (and often do) invest in. This report is aimed at policymakers and policy advisors. It is well written and contains good ideas and insight.